Icelandic Theatre History
The beginnings of Icelandic theatre around 1800
The history of Icelandic theatre goes back to the last years of the 18th century. At that time the Cathedral School at Skßlholt had been moved to ReykjavÝk, the future capital of Iceland, at that time a small town of about 300 people. Iceland was overwhelmingly rural until the 19th century and the extremely dispersed farm settlement made for few stages on which to act, so the development of theatrical art was naturally a late phenomenon. In addition, the remoteness and isolation of the island was a barrier for travelling groups of actors, which in the 17th and 18th centuries were otherwise a common phenomenon in Scandinavia.
Iceland was ruled by the Danes at that time and did not obtain full independence until 1918. Between 1918 and 1944 it was still a part of the Danish crown, but became a republic in 1944. The development of Icelandic theatre and drama has been closely linked with Icelanders' attempts to preserve their indigenous language and culture. The influence of Danish was of course great and it was for a long time not clear how an ancient culture like Iceland's would adapt itself to the demands of modern life. It is significant that the best comedy by Iceland's first prominent playwright, Narfi by Sigurur PÚtursson (1759-1827), is based very freely on one of Ludvig Holberg┤s comedies, Jean de France. Holberg's play reveals what happens to a young Dane when too much of Paris rubs off on him. In PÚtursson┤s play the stupid fob, Narfi, in a similar manner despises his own language and regards Danes and Danish manners with snobbery. As is proper in a classical comedy he finally gets what he deserves. There can be no doubt about the play┤s message: Icelanders should treat their own language with respect, and ought not to be ashamed of it or think Danish culture too superior.
PÚtursson only wrote two comedies which were both performed by the young students at the new grammar school in ReykjavÝk. The school was then moved from the town to Bessastair. It was not until 1846 that it was moved back to ReykjavÝk. The plays of PÚtursson were published in the same year and were, especially Narfi, performed extensively during the next decades in the small towns which were coming into existence all over the country.
Theatre in ReykjavÝk in the 19th century
In the early years of the 19th century there were few recorded theatre performances in ReykjavÝk. In the 1850s ReykjavÝk's inhabitants numbered only about 1500, but the town was changing, not least due to two new schools: the old grammar school, which had moved back in 1846 from Bessastair, and a new two year seminary for priests. The young and lively students of these schools thought theater a highly attractive pastime, but the problem was of course the scarcity of Icelandic plays.
Fortunately, the first flourishing of Icelandic drama, after the beginnings at the end of the 18th century, would shortly take place in the 1860s and early 1870s. It was closely connected with the activities of the artist and stage painter Sigurur Gumundsson (1833-1874). While studying in Copenhagen, he developed a keen interest in theatre, realizing its potential in the struggle against foreign oppression. This led him to voice the need for a national stage from which the people could be enlightened and made aware of their national identity. He became Iceland's first stage designer and encouraged poets to create national drama based on Icelandic folklore. He was an innovative artist and among his achievements for the stage were so-called "tableaux vivants": living but static scene pictures, using real actors, which depicted scenes from the old Norse sagas. This form, which reminds one of contemporary performances and installations, was then in fact popular in Europe, but usually based on famous paintings. In Gumundsson┤s case he himself envisioned the tableaux. As there was no permanent theatre stage in ReykjavÝk at this time the performances were necessarily sporadic and there were many years in which no plays were put on.
Under Gumundsson┤s influence two students wrote plays based on folklore. MatthÝas Jochumsson (1835-1920), who in later life became the best-loved poet of the country, wrote The Outlaws (1862), and Indrii Einarsson (1851-1939) wrote New Year┤s Eve (1871), inspired by Johan Ludvig Heiberg┤s Elverh÷j and Shakespeare┤s Midsummer Night┤s Dream. The Outlaws, an immensely popular comedy, remains the most frequently produced Icelandic play, but its initial success owed much to the popular songs in the play and to Gumundsson┤s pioneering stage design depicting the Icelandic landscape. Einarsson, though a lesser talent than Jochumsson, was the first writer to concentrate on playwriting. None of his work has been as popular as New Year┤s Eve, especially in the revised version from 1907. Einarsson┤s strength was his sense of theatre; when he returned to ReykjavÝk after having finished his studies abroad, he often directed plays, among them Ibsen┤s The Soldiers from Helgeland, a romantic play based on motifs from the Edda poetry and the Icelandic sagas. Einarsson┤s major contribution is, however, his dedication to Gumundsson┤s national theatre ideal. Through his tireless efforts money was finally secured to begin construction of a National Theatre in the late 1920s.
The 1890s saw a flourishing of theatre life in ReykjavÝk. This was partly due to the erection of two new theatre buildings, and finally the superior Inˇ (Craftsmens' House), built in 1896-97. In these venues the young actors of the town found opportunities to act on a more regular basis than before, and in 1897 the ReykjavÝk Theatre Company (RTC) started staging plays in Inˇ.
The ReykjavÝk Theatre Company, RTC, may without exaggeration be said to have transformed the theatrical landscape of the town and the country as a whole. It was much more ambitious in its choice of plays than earlier groups and it nurtured the first core group of Icelandic professional actors. Even if Icelandic actors only became true full time professionals when the National Theatre was inaugurated in 1950, there is no doubt that the leading actors of the RTC were much admired by the public in general and regarded themselves as pioneers of artistic acting in the country. The most prominent of them was the actress StefanÝa Gumundsdˇttir (1876-1926), who was both loved by the general public and admired by the critics for her versatility and professional standards.
During the 1910s Icelandic drama suddenly began to flourish. The most important dramatists at this time were two young authors, who both wrote their plays in Icelandic and Danish, Jˇhann Sigurjˇnsson (1880-1919) and Gumundur Kamban (1888-1945). Another prominent dramatist was Einar H. Kvaran (1859-1938), who was also periodically stage director with the RTC. Sigurjˇnsson was the most outstanding artistic talent of these three, but his tragic death at a relatively young age cut his career short. His most famous play was Eyvind of the Hills (Fjalla-Eyvindur), which was performed all over Scandinavia and many foreign countries. Sigurjˇnsson's plays were performed with great success by the RTC and some of Kvaran┤s and Kamban┤s plays also enjoyed popularity.
Despite small grants from the state and the city, RTC's existence was always precarious and the late 1910s were a very difficult period. There was no acting school in the country and when the first pioneers retired or died, there were few to replace them. The amenities in Inˇ, both for the public and the actors, were very limited and gradually people began realizing that if theatrical art were to survive in Iceland, a new theatre had to be built. Nevertheless, the supporters of the theatre in the Icelandic parliament (the Al■ingi) met with great resistance when they attempted to introduce a law regarding the building of a new National Theatre. Finally, however, they managed to pass the law and the theatre building was erected in 1928-1932. At that time the project was suspended and the building's interior left incomplete, as state finances were said to be in bad shape due to the international depression.
In 1927 two young Icelanders, Haraldur Bj÷rnsson (1892-1967) and Anna Borg (1903-1963), completed their studies at the Royal Theatre┤s Acting School in Copenhagen. Anna Borg, daughter of the above-mentioned StefanÝa Gumundsdˇttir, who later married the famous Danish actor Poul Reumert, soon became a leading actress in Copenhagen, while Bj÷rnsson went back to Iceland, hoping to become an actor and director, working on a full time basis. The time, however, did not seem ripe for such a move; many still found it preposterous to suppose that such a small country ever would be able to sustain a professional theatre. The RTC was at this time hampered by financial difficulties and there were also difficult internal conflicts which did not enhance the general status of the art. But gradually the company got over these troubles and the 1940s were one of the best periods of its history. The leading directors at this time were Indridi Waage (1902-1963) and Lßrus Pßlsson (1914-1968), who were also outstanding actors and sensitive teachers. Another important figure was Ůorsteinn Í. Stephensen (1904-1991), a brilliant character actor who for almost 30 years was head of the Radio Drama Department. A foreign guest, who made an important contribution to the theatre at this time, was the Norwegian actress Gerd Grieg, who directed some of Ibsen┤s and Bj÷rnsson┤s plays at the RTC with great success.
Theatre in ReykjavÝk in the second half of the 20th century
The existence of the RTC was threatened in 1950 when the National Theatre opened, as nearly all its actors were recruited for the new theatre. A few idealists, including two leading actors, the abovementioned Stephensen and Brynjˇlfur Jˇhannesson (1897-1974), decided to persevere, with Danish-born Gunnar R. Hansen (1902-1963) as director. The RTC became fully professional in 1963 under artistic director Sveinn Einarsson (b. 1934) and has since proved a vital alternative to the National Theatre. The RTC moved into the newly built City Theatre in 1989.
At the National Theatre, under the leadership of Gulaugur Rˇsinkranz (1903-1977), who was director for the first twenty years, new works and classics, both Icelandic and foreign, were performed. The NT Drama School (1950-1970) offered the opportunity of professional training withing the country, and the NT Ballet School made it possible to establish the Icelandic Dance Company in 1973, making ballet part of the repertoire. Opera has been staged since 1951, the theatre being the country's only opera house until the Icelandic Opera was formed in 1980. It was not until the 1970s that new Icelandic drama became the backbone of the repertoire, after Sveinn Einarsson had moved from the RTC to become theatre director at the NT.
Fringe theatre has made its mark since the 1960s, beginning with the GrÝma Theatre (1961-1970), which showed that there was a demand for an adventurous alternative theatre with its successful productions of new avant-garde drama. The short-lived Leiksmijan (Theatre Workshop), under director Eyvindur Erlendsson, attracted attention with a return to folklore motifs. In 1975 the Icelandic Drama School was founded, training many promising young actors who were unable to find work in existing theatres. In the same year another imporant fringe theatre group, Al■řuleikh˙si (The People┤s Theatre) was established in Akureyri. It had a radical profile and wished to take its productions to the people. It was a rather loose organization, active through the 1980s but dissolved in the early 1990s. The fringe and avant-garde scene of the 1990s was dominated by the Fr˙ EmilÝa Theatre, the Hafnarfj÷rur Theatre, LeikfÚlag ═slands, LeikfÚlagi Loftur, ═slenska leikh˙si and other groups, most of which have been rather short-lived. The most prominent fringe theatre groups of today are the Hafnarfj÷rur Theatre and The Vesturport Group, whose production of Shakespeare┤s Romeo and Juliet reached the London stage in 2003 and 2004.
The 1960s saw a renaissance of playwriting, and ever since J÷kull Jakobsson's (1933-1978) successful Hard-a-Port (1962) Icelandic plays have been predominant. This period produced a variety of playwrights. In the fifties Agnar Ůˇrarson (b. 1917), attracted attention with his psychological plays, often tinged with topical satire. In historical hindsight Jakobsson has to be reckoned the most important playwright at this time. He was more prolific than any other up to his death in 1978 and even if some of his plays had a mixed reception, he had the most distinctive theatrical style and the widest ranging influence of all the young playwrights of this generation. The Nobel Prize winner Halldˇr Laxness (1902-1998) also wrote a few absurdist satires in the 1960s and dramatizations of his novels have proved popular. Oddur Bj÷rnsson (b. 1932) and Gumundur Steinsson (1925-1996), who were closely connected to the GrÝma Theatre, can both be classified as modernist. Bj÷rnsson has been called the finest exponent of absurdist theatre in Iceland and Steinsson had great success with his tragicomedies about the failure of modern family life in the 70s. Other important recent playwrights are the popular comedy writer Jˇnas ┴rnason (1923-1998), Kjartan Ragnarsson (b. 1945), Sigurur Pßlsson (b. 1948), Birgir Sigursson (b. 1937), Ëlafur Haukur SÝmonarson (b. 1947), ┴rni Ibsen (b. 1948), Ůorvaldur Ůorsteinsson (b. 1960), KristÝn Ëmarsdˇttir (b. 1962), Hßvar Sigurjˇnsson (b. 1958), Jˇn Atli Jˇnasson (b.1972).
The Icelandic amateur stage
Strictly speaking all theatre in Iceland was amateur until the establishment of the National Theatre in 1950. An exception, however, has to be made for RTC, which could be termed a semi-professional company from the beginning. Theatrical performances have enjoyed great popularity since the late 19th century all around the country. There are records of performances staged at large farms in the countryside around 1860, and it is at that time that people began to put on performances in the fishing villages with their newly-acquired trade licenses. In most larger townships amateur companies have flourished since the early 20th century. The only one of them to have turned professional is the theatre company in Akureyri, the country's second largest town, which in 1973 became the first professional group outside ReykjavÝk.
Outside ReykjavÝk the amateur theatre is still flourishing. The Association of Amateur Theatres (Bandalag Ýslenskra leikfÚlaga) was established in 1950 and has provided a very useful service for the around 80 amateur companies performing around the country. Even in ReykjavÝk an amateur company, Hugleikur, has been active since 1984, specializing in comical/satirical plays, written by its own authors. Another ambitious amateur company in ReykjavÝk is St˙dentaleikh˙si (The Students' Theatre). The repertoire of the amateur companies has usually been oriented toward light entertainment, but new Icelandic plays have also been well received. It is quite common for amateur production to be directed by fully qualified professionals, which no doubt accounts for the high artistic standards some of these companies have been able to achieve.
Radio and TV drama
The Icelandic National Broadcasting Service (R┌V), established in 1930, began broadcasting plays, both live and recorded, from its first year of broadcasting. Radio plays soon became immensely popular and had a huge number of listeners, especially in the 1940s and 1950s, before the advent of television. When drama started flourishing in the 1960s some of the leading writers showed great interest in the medium, not least among them Agnar Ůˇrarson, J÷kull Jakobsson and Oddur Bj÷rnsson. The head of the Drama Department from 1947 to 1974 was Ůorsteinn Í. Stephensen (1904-1991), one of the finest and best-loved actors of the country, who created many of his best roles on radio.
Icelandic state television (R┌V) commenced broadcasting in 1966, and was already broadcasting Icelandic drama by 1967. To begin with, R┌V mainly took existing material from the theatres. But the station soon started producing its own dramatic material, most often on video but also on film. The first television film was made in 1970. Once in a while R┌V has collaborated with theatres; in such cases the theatre production is reworked, and then recorded or filmed on the stage or in a studio.
After the establishment of the National Theatre in 1950 children┤s plays soon became a fairly regular part of the repertoire. The most popular of these were the plays by the Norwegian dramatist Thorbj÷rn Egner. The RTC put on some children's plays in the 1960s, but it was only after it had moved into the new City Theatre in 1989 that it could serve young audiences to a degree comparable to that of the National Theatre. Some of the fringe groups of the recent years have specialized in plays for children, such as M÷guleikh˙si (whose name is a pun meaning roughly The Theatre of Possibilty) and Stopp-hˇpurinn (The Stop Group). Mention has also to be made of puppet theatre, whose founding father was the artist Jˇn E. Gumundsson (1915-2004) who ran his ═slenska br˙uleikh˙si (The Icelandic Puppet Theatre) from the 1950s to the 1990s, often performing in school and social centres around the country. In later years his work has been continued by Leikbr˙uland and by various independent puppeteers.
Opera and ballet
Needless to say, it is not easy to get the necessary resources for opera and ballet in such a small society as Iceland. Nevertheless, one opera company and one dance company currently operate regularly in ReykjavÝk: the Icelandic Opera, founded in 1980, and the Iceland Dance Company, founded in 1973. After it was established in 1950 the National Theatre soon started producing its own operas, often with guest artists in the leading roles, and in 1952 a ballet school was founded. Many singers and dancers began to feel a need for independent companies, working outside the National Theatre where non-musical repertoire had a natural priority. The Icelandic Opera was founded on the initiative of a group of singers under the leadership of opera singer and conductor Garar Cortes, who remained leader of the Opera for its first twenty years. The company operates in a old cinema house, which has been converted to a theatre, mainly concentrating on popular operas by composers as Verdi, Puccini, Mozart and Johann Strauss, as the works by composers like Wagner and Richard Strauss make rather too great demands on its small orchestra pit and shallow stage. The Iceland Dance Company, since 1996 stationed in the new City Theatre of ReykjavÝk, and working under the leadership of KatrÝn Hall, has in contrast focused on modern ballet.
Settur hefur veri upp ß vegum Leikminjasafns ═slands Gagnabanki Ýslenskra leikh˙sa og leikh˙slistamanna ■ar sem hŠgt verur a fß upplřsingar um verkefni Ý ÷llum Ýslenskum leikh˙sum frß stofnun LeikfÚlags ReykjavÝkur til okkar daga.
Leikminjasafn ═slands hefur haft ■ann hßtt ß a minnast aldarafmŠla merkra Ýslenskra leikh˙smanna undir heitinu Merkisdagar Ýslenskrar leiklistars÷gu.
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